Among HIV-positive men, current HAART use did not decrease anal cancer risk. Keywords: anal, rectal, cancer, incidence, MACS, sexual risk, HAART HIV- positive men and men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of anal cancer HPV has been recently shown to be an important cause of cervical . Lung cancer can often be prevented simply by not smoking. HPV risk is increased by having anal sex and having many sex partners. Be aware of any anal or rectal symptoms, and report them to a health care provider.